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Skill Analysis: Wind Turbine Bearing Treatment Solution
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As the primary component of wind turbines; the selection of bearings has always been the most concerned problem for the main engine manufacturers; whether it is the depiction of the bearing itself; still the selection of bearing equipment; all determine the operating function and service life of the wind turbine mainframe.
Because the operating conditions of wind turbines are messy; the cost of repairing the main engine is high; ensuring the reliability of its operation; that is, the service life of wind turbines; it has always been an important problem for the host manufacturers. The influence of the use of bearings on the power of the mainframe It is extremely important. Therefore; according to the clutter of wind turbines; SKF specially developed a special bearing for it; that is, "Nautilus" bearing a double row tapered roller bearing with a special large touch angle (Fig. 1) .
Figure 1 Nautilus bearing wind turbine main engine bearing developed by SKF is equipped with traditional wind turbine bearing equipment for double bearing support. According to the working principle of wind power generator; the transmission chain is generally selected as follows: main shaft, gear box (speed increasing box) And the generator. On the main shaft; the equipment adopting the double bearing is a more traditional and more common method; the selected bearing type is different according to the different needs of the depiction; but the more traditional bearing equipment is the spherical roller bearing. Equipped or tapered roller bearing equipment.
The advantage of the double-bearing equipment is that the main shaft bearing receives most of the messy wind loads; except for the torque; basically no other load is transmitted to the gearbox of the drive chain; it gives the gearbox a great convenience. The equipment also has its own defects; for example, the transmission chain is longer; in addition to the length of the main shaft; it is also necessary to consider the length of the coupling that the main shaft and the gear box are connected to. Therefore, in a low-power wind turbine; In high-power wind turbines; too long drive chains mean larger volumes and higher production costs.
The latest spindle bearing equipment processing scheme is single bearing support. Following the development of wind turbines; high-power wind turbines have become the trend of shopping malls; higher energy density has become the policy pursued by various host manufacturers; The depiction brought great battles.
In high-power wind turbines; to ensure that there is a satisfactory load to accept a large wind load. Therefore; the spindle; the scale of the bearing must be increased; and this must form the addition of the entire component of the host; It is the mainframe-associated component; it includes the addition of the cost of the components such as the tower. So can there be a way to reduce the power of the wind turbine and reduce the production cost of the entire wind turbine? This has become an increasingly urgent problem faced by the mainframe manufacturers and component manufacturers; because of the decline in cost; it means the progress of the product competition. Based on the above intentions; SKF developed a large touch angle cone for high-power wind turbines. Roller bearing (Figure 2).
Outstanding features of the Nautilus bearing The bearing is a tapered roller bearing equipped with back-to-back; it has a large touch angle (45). It not only makes the single-bearing spindle gear possible; it also greatly shortens the length of the transmission chain in the traditional depiction; The description of a compact wind turbine is possible. Of course; the special depiction ensures that the bearing or the transmission system does everything.
1. Larger touch angles Traditionally paired (perhaps double row) tapered roller bearings; the touch angle is generally only about 20; in addition to ensuring its large radial load bearing; the axial bearing capacity of the bearing and the ability to accept the overturning moment There are certain constraints. Therefore, on a main shaft, it is necessary to ensure that the depiction can be satisfactorily used; it is necessary to have another bearing as the second fulcrum to receive other radial forces; and the equipment of the two bearings; Satisfied with the entire axis when the overturning moment is encountered; no deformation will occur.
Nautilus bearings break the traditional touch angle depiction; the contact angle of each single-row bearing is extended to 45. Compared with the traditional two-bearing equipment; the spacing between the two single-row bearing touch points of Nautilus bearing is much higher than that of the line. General tapered roller bearings; the intersection of the two touch points can be used as the two focal points in the entire shafting; it becomes the effect point of the supporting shaft system.
2. Segmented engineering plastics adhere to the removal of large touch angles; another distinguishing feature of the bearing is the use of segmented engineering plastics for the support frame. For the internal components of the bearing; the rollover is an important load-bearing component; And insist on the removal of the tumbling operation; there is also the function of separating the rolling elements to prevent their conflicts. The support frame is not a force component; it cannot accept any external force. Therefore, it often uses lighter materials. Produce; together; adhere to the information to be satisfied with another need; that is, the strength of satisfaction. Because the power required to maintain the rotation of the bearing in the operation of the bearing is supplied by the roll; therefore; the data of the frame requires a certain strength. Make sure it works properly.
Regarding SKF Nautilus bearings; in order to ensure that the touch angle connection is sufficient to accept the force in the system; the scale of the bearing is often very large; currently the most used in the shopping mall is the bearing product with a diameter of 2~2.5 m. The component of the descending bearing itself becomes a technical problem to be broken in the depiction. As the inner and outer rings and the rolling body of the bearing member; in order to ensure the bearing capacity of the bearing; there is no need to have a little care on the material selection. Engineering plastics selected for SKF Nautilus bearings; Not only does it ensure a satisfactory strength; it is lighter in weight; it ensures the rotating function of the bearing; together it reduces the internal conflict of the bearing.
The segmented depiction is another major feature of the SKF Nautilus bearing (Fig. 3). In this bearing four or five roll bodies share a single bracket assembly; there is no other connection between the bracket components. If used in this bearing The traditional one-piece self-supporting frame; because the scale is too large; the weight of the frame itself will deform its attack; in the process of bearing operation; this deformation will lead to the rated touch of the rolling body and the support frame; the attack is rated conflict. This is not only Will increase the operating temperature of the bearing; and the conflict on the wear of the frame and the roll data will also lead to the deformation of the frame or even the roll; the end affects the load bearing capacity of the bearing and even the service life.
Segmented perseverance; each component is very individual. The word purchases èŠ æ¦§ æ¦§ è° è° è° ç©‘ ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· ä¸€èµ· å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸º å› ä¸ºConflicts will also be reduced to a minimum size.
3. The use of features Nautilus bearings has been widely used in high-power wind turbines; instead of the two-bearing depiction; shortening the scale of the drive chain, then this application can bring advantages; what problems will occur in the application? ?
The depiction of the traditional wind turbine main shaft; the bearing division of the bearing is generally that the bearing at the fixed end receives all axial loads and some radial loads; while the other bearing receives some radial load as the floating end. Wind field wind load The size of the bearing determines the dimensions of the required bearing; while the bearing scale determines the spacing between the two bearings; it also determines the length of the entire transmission chain.
The single bearing (Nautilus) is characterized by ensuring the same shaft receiving force; all axial and radial loads are accepted by one bearing; the dimensions of the entire transmission chain are reduced; in addition to the internal preloading force in the single bearing depiction; Regarding the application of the bearing; there is no difference between the two bearings, and the single bearing is specially adhered to the frame; it has a very good running function under the condition of smooth grease and smooth oil.
As long as there is one bearing on the main shaft; it is necessary to complete the effect of the two bearings; then; the rigidity of this bearing becomes a key element in the bearing depiction. The inner ring of the Nautilus bearing is two separate parts; The calibration of the generator is used; in the production, the internal clearance of the bearing is drawn to the augmented scale; after the bearing device; the optimized preload force can be reached; the process of the bearing device is simplified; and the bearing needs to be satisfied.
The tapered roller bearing is depicted in the early stage; in order to satisfy the needs of the single bearing; the commonly used bearing is a three-row cylindrical roller bearing. The bearing is similar to the reverse bearing; a row of rolling elements (similar to a cylindrical roller) The sub-bearing) accepts all radial forces; the other two rows of tumbling bodies (similar to roller thrust bearings) accept the bidirectional axial force in the system. The bearing seems to be able to satisfy some of the functions of the single-bearing equipment; It is found that the two rows of rolling elements functioning as the thrust bearing rotate when the bearing rotates in a full circle; the two end faces of the rolling body cannot reach the same linear velocity; this means that there are many sliding conflicts in the running process of the bearing. Bearing; sliding conflict is to prevent it; because it will not only bring more bearing heat; the smoothness of the sliding conflict is also a difficult problem in the bearing smoothness. Because of some difficulties in the depiction; the bearing can not now Satisfied with the need for increasingly high-powered wind turbines.
Not the same as depicting the persistence of the frame, in addition to the depiction of the SKF Nautilus bearing; there are several different types of persistence depictions on the mall. Now compare the advantages of several sticks.
Figure 4 is a metal-in-one pin-type holding frame. Wang Wensheng; the rolling body of the bearing is a through-hole drawing; there is a pin in the center of the rolling body that is connected to the two ends of the side ring of the holding frame. In the depiction; The roll size is much larger than other bearings of the same scale; because it is not only satisfactory and satisfactory bearing capacity; it is also necessary to open a through hole inside the roll body to wear the pin-holding device. Other; smooth sliding parts It is a very important problem; this has been mentioned above. The bearing roll body hole and the insisting frame pin are all sliding conflicts; not only the smooth problem is not well handled; it also brings the bearing heat is also A problem that must be valued.
Another typical depiction is the full-roller bearing depiction without the holder. Of course; from the lower rotational speed of the spindle bearing; the reduction in rotational force caused by the full-roller bearing is not sufficient to prevent the bearing application. The conflict between the rolling bodies is a key point that cannot be ignored.
The reason why the bearing is to depict the support frame; an important function is to separate the adjacent two rolling bodies; prevent the internal friction of the bearing rolling body during the running of the bearing; reduce the conflict and noise. Therefore; the full roller bearing has a very High bearing capacity; but on the spindle bearing; because of the internal conflict of the rolling body, it is still not a ambition.
Others; another type of adherence depiction mentioned above; that is, a one-piece holder similar to a conventional bearing. There is no one-piece holder in SKF Nautilus bearings; the first is because its scale is too large; Adhere to the deformation of the frame; bring more conflict between the rolling body and the support frame. In addition; as a device for attacking power; an important problem in the description of wind turbines is to improve the energy density; to maximize the drop of its components Loss of energy. From this point of view to move; integrated support also has limitations.
Wind turbines; due to their special application conditions; the selection of parts is crucial. According to the research report; by 2012; the installed capacity of wind power will increase from 90000 MW in 2007 to 290,000 MW. Wind turbine manufacturers And operators; are increasingly inclined to high reliability wind turbines; to achieve a balance between economic and ecological benefits.
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